COPD Education Program
Since patients with COPD differ in many respects from BA patients in various parameters, the organization of providing information to patients with COPD is also different.
A teacher starting a class with COPD patients should consider the following:
- low or extremely low motivation of patients;
- low psychosocial status, impaired ability to perceive and process information;
- lack of understanding and disinterest on the part of doctors in referring patients to a teacher.
In this regard, below there are the basic rules for recruiting patients and conducting classes in a group:
- the group should consist of no more than 4 people;
- a well-ventilated, bright place should be defined for conducting classes;
- patients should be located facing the teacher, sitting at some distance from each other;
- the teacher should be dressed in a white coat, which in this case increases the teacher’s authority;
- the lesson should be held no longer than 40 minutes;
- one class should, if possible, be devoted to one topic;
- if signs of fatigue appear, it is advisable to take a break for a few minutes.
When working with COPD patients, the teacher plays the role of a leader rather than a partner, as in BA. He will quickly become convinced that patients with COPD are more likely to demand unambiguous direct instructions.
Invitation and selection of patients to classes should be carried out as actively as possible, since a lack of understanding of the training
importance and low motivation on the part of patients and on the part of medical workers make it difficult to invite patients through a general announcement. The trainer should actively identify admitted / monitored COPD patients through the treating physician. The criteria for including patients in the educational program are the severity of the patient’s condition (with severe COPD, it is very difficult to convey the necessary information to the patient), as well as an intellectual level sufficient for training.
Individual lessons are conducted for those patients who cannot attend the group, as well as for those whose personal characteristics force them to conduct training in a mode different from that of other patients.
Training can be carried out both in outpatient and in stationary conditions, but in stationary conditions it is easier influence the learning process and the assimilation of the material.
Visual aids for conducting classes should be:
- schematic images of the lungs and bronchi in norm and with pathology;
- various types of inhalers and spacers;
- various types of nebulizers;
- nicotine replacement drugs;
- peak flow meters and examples of peak measurement graphs expiratory flow rate.
At the end of the lesson (s), patients will certainly follow blows to provide information in printed form, which is abrupt improves learning outcomes.
Key topics to be covered in COPD education
What is COPD?
The lesson is devoted to the description of the processes occurring in the bronchial tree and lungs in COPD. It is important to emphasize that COPD is a disease that affects not only the bronchial tree, but all the lungs.
The teacher dwells on the structure of the bronchi and lungs in the norm, telling what the bronchial tree is, how the bronchi are divided down to the smallest. It is necessary to dwell on what the alveoli are, how gas exchange occurs through them. A teacher tells about the mucous membrane of the bronchi, gives the basic concepts of the mechanisms of purification of the bronchi and lungs, describes the function of the ciliated epithelium and cilia. The teacher talks about the muscle layer of the bronchi, what is important – the early stages of the disease are missed. Mention should be made of these irreversible changes – sclerosis of the bronchial wall, destruction of lung tissue.
After that, the teacher should return to the problem of smoking once again, stressing again that smoking is the most important cause of COPD, and quitting smoking at any stage of the disease prolongs life. It is recommended to ask the listeners a few questions on the topic of smoking – do the attendees smoke (usually smoke or smoked in the recent past all those who came to the class), how long and how much they smoke, did they try to quit smoking. Perhaps there will be a patient who will talk about his successful experience in the fight against smoking. At the same time, it is worth asking him how he quit smoking, what feelings he experienced, why he decided to quit smoking, what techniques he used to quit smoking.
At the same time, the first experience of conducting classes at school for COPD patients shows that smoking cessation issues are the most painful, in what part of the course training they would not be put. The teacher should be ready to meet a negative reaction, up to resentment against the doctor and refusal to attend classes. In this regard, the specialist requires maximum attention, observation of the reaction of the audience and maximum flexibility in the presentation of the material. In addition, we emphasize that anti-tobacco programs should be dealt with by specialized organizations and specially trained doctors.
In conclusion, the teacher should summarize the information by repeating the main points outlined and be sure to re-emphasize the problem of smoking and COPD.
The session should be concluded with the question that patients have heard important things for themselves in the past 40 minutes. Answers will show the ability to perceive information, interest in gaining knowledge about the disease, attitude to the problem of smoking cessation, the general cognitive level of the group and the individual characteristics of each listener. Based on the information received, the teacher will be able to adjust plans for further lessons.